A shiny app to display the human body map dataset

There was quite a lot of buzz around when the guys from Rstudio launched Shiny, a new web framework for R that promises to “make it super simple for R users like you to turn analyses into interactive web applications that anyone can use”.  Indeed, it looks really impressive.

So, in order to give Shiny a test I thought i’d analyse and then create a front end to the Illumina human body map data.  This should be quite some test for Shiny as R is slow and clunky for all but the smallest of data sets.   I wanted the application to allow the user to enter a gene and have returned 1) a gene level plot of the tissue distribution, 2) details of all the isoforms detected for that gene and, 3) the expression of each isoform in any given tissue.

For those who haven’t heard of this dataset; it’s RNA-seq data that has been generated by Illumina on a HiSeq2000 from 16 different, healthy, human tissues and freely downloadable from the above link.  The libraries were prepared using poly-A selected mRNA and sequenced as both 50bp paired-end or 75bp single end reads.  No replicates unfortunately.  Here I will use just the paired-end reads, of which there are 70-80 million pairs per sample.  The raw reads were aligned with TopHat and assembled with Cufflinks.

To save having to code up all of the visualisations I wanted from scratch I decided to use the cummeRbund package (from the TopHat/Cufflinks authors) which has some awesome ggplot2 based functions for generating track-like images from a cufflinks/cuffdiff based analysis.  The trade off here is that cummeRbund maintains a huge (19Gb for this dataset) SQLite database in the background and is S.L.O.W. The stats for the data loaded into R:

CuffSet instance with:
16 samples
105441 genes
335696 isoforms
190081 TSS

Right, Shiny. I won’t go into detail – you can read the tutorial/docs yourself.  But, suffice to say it’s dead simple with no CSS, javascript or HTML to worry about. The only downside of this is that the layout and style of the page is largely fixed (unless you want to get your hands really dirty).  Also key is that Shiny is reactive, i.e. if any of the input variables change, any functions that rely on those will automatically update themselves, as will functions that rely on those and so on.

The first task was to get the input form hooked up to the server code, which literally just requires you to specify a text input box and a submit button:

textInput("gene", label="Gene", value = ""),

Then in the server code, specify a function that waits for the gene variable to be defined by the user and does something.  In this case it gets the data out of the cuffdiff database for the input gene and plots the FPKM of that gene in each of the 16 tissues:

output$genePlot = reactivePlot(function() {
myGene = getGene(cuff,input$gene)
if (is.null(myGene))
x = data.frame(
tissue = fpkm(myGene)$sample_name,
print(ggplot(x,aes(fill=tissue,x=tissue,y=fpkm)) + geom_bar(position="dodge", stat="identity") +

I rolled my own barplot here as the cummeRbund version is quite clunky.  The result for PATE1 (Prostate And Testes Expressed 1) looks like this:


Next up, another function to create track-esque plots of the isoforms found for the input gene, which also includes some nice visual touches like the ideogram and the Ensembl annotated isoforms:


You’ll notice a drop down box has appeared under the input form. This is for the final hurrah – select a tissue and the expression of different isoforms in that tissue will be plotted:


OK OK, so it’s not very well laid out etc – but for a first pass I think its great, and the ggplot2 graphics make up for it a little bit. I should also point out that it is not just slow, but very slow! If I stopped calling out to Ensembl, or ditched cummeRbund all together this could be improved.

The gist is on GitHub (https://gist.github.com/4672051) but I don’t provide the expression data (it’s huge!). I’m pretty sure that it should work with only minor tweaking for any RNA-seq data set analysed with a TopHat -> Cufflinks -> CuffDiff pipeline.


4 thoughts on “A shiny app to display the human body map dataset

  1. Pingback: Illumina Human BodyMap 2.0 | m's Bioinformatics

  2. Pingback: A shiny app to display the human body map dataset - R Project Aggregate

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